学习啦 伟鑫 2017-05-06 17:13:53
Jean-Henri Casimir Fabre (1823-1915), the famous French entomologist, writer. Known as the "insects of the Homer" (according to Homer for the ancient Greek two famous epic "Iliad" and "Odyssey" the author), the insect sector "Virgil". He painted more than 700 pieces of fungi with watercolor paintings and was appreciated and loved by the Provence poet Mistral. He also contributed to the bleaching and dyeing industry, has received three patents on alizarin.
Jean-Henri Casimir Fabre (1823 ~ 1915) at the age of 92, he is a famous French entomologist, animal behaviorist, writer. Known as the "insects of the Homer", "insect community of Virgil". Fabre was born in a French farmer in San Leon, Provence, southern France. For the next few years, Fabre was spent at the grandmother's house of Malawar, not far from the village, who was attracted by the lovely insects of the country's butterflies and fireflies.
In 1857, he published the "Abdominal Habits habit observation", this paper amended the then entomologist founder Leon Du Fuer's erroneous view, which won the praise of the French Academy, was awarded the Experimental Physiology Award The During this period, Fabre will also devote himself to the study of natural dyed madder or alizarin, when the French soldiers trousers on the red, it comes from the madder powder.
In 1859, Fabre received three patents for such research. Later, Fabré was invited by the Minister of Public Education, Victor Druid, to organize the organization and teaching of an adult night school, but his free teaching method caused dissatisfaction with some people. So he resigned his job, with the family settled in Aurang, and live is more than ten years. In this more than ten years, Fabre completed the last volume of ten volumes of "Insects" in the first volume. During the period, he repeatedly with friends to Wandu mountain collection of plant specimens. In addition, he also met the British philosopher Mir, but Miller died young, so that the two previously brewing plan "Walker Luz Vegetation Grand" so died. At the same time, a great misfortune came to Faber: he was a total of six children, one of the only interest with his father, love to observe the son of nature Jules only sixteen years old and left the world. Since then, Fabre will discover several plants dedicated to the early death of Jules, to express his memory. The study of fungi has always been one of Fabre's hobbies.
In 1878, he wrote a lot of wonderful academic articles on the theme of the fungus of Vaucluse. His research on the wild is also very detailed, and meticulously described its fragrance, gourmets claim to be able to from the real block of wild goods described in his description of all the taste.
In 1879, Fabre bought the Selinese desolate garden, and has been living to death. This is a barren barren land, but it is the land of insects, in addition to family living, there are his study, studio and test ground, let him quietly concentrate on thinking, threw himself into All kinds of observation and experiment to go, it can be said that he has always dreamed of heaven and earth. It is here, Fabre side of the observation and experiment, while finishing the first half of the study of insect observation notes, experimental records and scientific notes, completed the "Insect" in the last nine volumes. Today, the former residence has become a museum, quietly located in a rich Provencal style of the botanical garden.
Fabre has a long history of self-study, has received a bachelor's degree, a bachelor's degree in mathematics, a bachelor's degree in natural science and a doctorate in natural sciences, proficient in Latin and Greek, favorite Roman writer Horace and poet Virgil's works. He is in the painting, watercolor is also almost self-taught, leaving a lot of exquisite fungus illustrations made Nobel Prize winner, the French poet Frederick Mistral is full of praise. In his later years, the success of the "Insects" won him the reputation of "the insects of the insects" and the "Virgil of the insects", and his achievements have been widely recognized by society. Fabre had a lot of scientific titles, but he was still as simple as being shy and humble and living a life of poverty. His talent was admired by scholars at the time, including the British biologist Darwin, 1911 Nobel Prize winner - Belgian playwright Maite Linke, German writer Junger, French philosopher Bergson, poet horse Latin American, Provence writer Lumannier and so on. As the "Insects" in the accurate record of the Fabry conducted experiments, opened the insect life and life habits of many secrets, Darwin called Faber as "can not follow the observer." When he lived in Celignan, many scholars and writers went to visit him. Fabre had received Pasteur, British philosopher Mir and other scholars in his own home, but with their communication is not frequent. The Minister of Public Education, Victor Druid, recommended Fabre to Napoleon III, who awarded him the Medal of Honor. French politician Raymond Pune Gala through Celignan, specifically bypassing the Great Stone Park to pay tribute to him. As a naturalist, he has left a number of animal and plant academic works, including "fine grass: patents and papers", "Avignon's animal", "block wild", " As a poet, he wrote a lot of poems in the Provencal language of southern France, and was affectionately made by the locals, who had written a number of poems, Known as the "Gadfly poet". In addition, he also translated some of the works of the Provencal poet into French; spare time, he also used his own small harmonica spectrum under some small music. However, Fabre works in the longest, the most important position, the most known to the world is still "Insect in mind." This work not only shows his scientific observation and research talent and literary talent, but also to the reader to convey his humanistic spirit and the love of life.
On December 22, 1823, he was born in an ancient village of Saint-leon in the southern province of Aqilong province in France, where he was named John Amway. Father Antonio (born in 1800), mother Fickwal (born in 1805).
In 1825 (2 years old) brother Frantick was born.
In 1827 (3 years old) because the mother to take care of young brother, so he from 3 years old until 6 years old, are fostered in the village of Malabo grandfather home; here is a big farm, there are many older children than him. He is a curious, memory of the child, had self-confirmed light is seen by the eyes, and to trace out the leaves of the Ming insects are exposed grasshopper. Before going to bed like to listen to grandmother story, and cold winter night is often holding sheep to sleep.
1830 (6 years old) returned to Sa Lei Wang village, into the Li Kaer teacher run private school, in class, often pig, chicken will run into the classroom foraging. By the animal books to write down the A, B, C ... alphabet, interested in insects and grasses, found the black throat robin nest, made nest blue wine, the priest persuaded, the eggs returned to the original Increase the income of the family, to help take care of ducklings, responsible for rushed to the marshes, and thus found the swamp creatures and crystal, mica and other minerals.
1833 (9 years old) Fabre secondary school graduation. The family moved to the town of Rhodes, the father to operate a coffee shop for a living, into the Wang Li College, served as a ceremonial ritual and exempt from tuition. During the school, study Latin and Greek, like reading the poem of the ancient Roman poet Wilkires.
1837 (13 years old) father operating coffee shop failed, his family moved to Torres. Go to the Eskors Theological Seminary.
1838 (14 years old) father's business failed again, moved to Montbli City, and opened a shop, away from home to sell lemon, do railway workers and other self-reliance. Used to buy more than one day wages to buy "Lubu Er poetry", brought to the wilderness to read, to understand the various insects for the greatest pleasure, the first time to catch the European gill tortoise, was particularly pleased.
1839 when the workers.
In 1840 (16 years old) due to the result of retreat was the teacher scolded and worked hard in two years to complete three years of credits, the rest of the year free learning natural history, Latin and Greek.
1842 (18 years old) after graduating from normal school, became a teacher of Calbentola primary school, the annual salary of 700 francs, due to enthusiastic teaching, well received. Father business failure, moved from the town of Bourbon to Bordeaux town.
1843 (19 years old) on the wild outside the measurement practice, the students learned that painted wall bee. But also because of this bee and began to read Blanche, Leo Mier and others with the "arthropod", from the heart "entomology."
1844 (20 years old) and colleague Marie van Jay (23 years old) married. Own learning mathematics, physics, chemistry and so on. The father's coffee shop is closed and is temporarily working in the tax office of the Calbentola.
1845 (21 years old) eldest daughter Elizabeth was born.
1846 (22 years old) Elizabeth died. Through the University of Montpellier math entry qualification examination. Brother francie Lectra became a primary school teacher.
In 1847 (23 years old) Bachelor of Mathematics from Montbelli University. The eldest son of John was born.
In 1848 (24 years old) Bachelor of Science from Montbelli University.
The elder died. Appreciate the writings of Tossner (French writer) about birds. Want to go to college to teach, but no chance.
In 1849 (25 years old) served as a physics teacher at the Corsican Agger Gio National High School, with an annual salary of 1,800 francs. Facing the richness of Corsica, began to study the animals and plants. In addition, he is also very keen on mathematics. And the botanist Lukia together to climb the Corsica every mountain collection of plants.
In 1856 (32 years old), he studied the experimental physiology of the French bachelor. Continue to study high nose bee, short winged turnip and other insects, but because of hardships, research time is not much. Part-time tutoring, tutor and other staff, began to study by the madder extract dyes.
1857 (33 years old) May 21, in the striped bee's nest found short-winged turnip larvae, and published "turn of the twigs of insects metamorphosis" papers, also published a paper on the plant.
1858 (34 years old) that no property can not become a university professor, dedicated to the study of madder dyes.
1859 (35 years old) Darwin In the book "Species Origin", the praise of Fabre is a "rare observer".
The second man was born. Served as curator of the museum. Inspector Derek's visit, met with the botanist Dura Kel, and later with the British economist Miller, who lives in Yawernon, became known as a plant.
1862 (38 years old) by Anseit published primary school with books. Knowing the president of the Paris publishing house, he was encouraged by his determination to write an easy-to-understand scientific book.
In 1863 (39 years old) three men love the birth of the United States, Germany stay by the Minister of Education.
1865 (41 years old) Dengduduan in distress, the bacteriologist Pasteur visit, by the De La Clap published "sky", "earth" and other scientific books.
In 1866 (42 years old), the dyestuffs were extracted directly from the madder, and was appointed as a professor of physics at the University of Arizona.
In 1867 (43 years old) the contribution to Yavignon was affirmed by the Canyier Prize for the prize of 9,000 francs.
1868 (44 years old) As a result of the recommendation of the Minister of Education, the Commissioner of the United States, and the Napoleon III. As a lecturer in natural science lectures at night. Will study the success of the madder dyes industrialization. Soon after the establishment of the factory, Germany completed the chemical synthesis of garlic thiamine dyes, madder dyes industrial dream and thus burst. Public lectures were taught by conservative educators, church opposition, then dismissed the normal school teaching.
In 1869 (45 years old), under the instigation of the conservatives, Deutsche resigned from the post of Minister of Education.
Olan Old Age
1870 (46 years old) to Miller loan, moved to the Oulan on. Raising a family of seven, a heavy burden. Fortunately, scientific publications have been published, can pay back a little money.
In 1871 (47 years old) lived a book to observe the life of insects. This year, because the occurrence of moral, French war, can not be royalties and royalties on time, life is more difficult.
In 1872 (48 years old) As a result of the introduction of Derek Yee, the chemist Tima presented a microscope.
1873 (49 years old) Miller died. Was forced to resign from the post of director of the museum, to protest. Won the silver medal by the Paris Society for the Protection of Animals, the books on mathematics, plants and physics have come out.
In 1877 (53 years old) male Jur died, the three bees to be found in the "Seoul" Latin "Voliwow" were named Vulvosto soil habitat bee, Livestock Point.
1878 (54) because of Jude's death, suffered a blow, the body is also worse than before. Infected pneumonia almost died, fortunately with strong willpower to weather the storm.
1879 to complete the "Insects in mind," Volume 1 (the original content includes: the feces of the sacred feces of the turtle, catch the worms of the tumor soil habitat bees, catch short winged turtles Sri Lanka Road, Doug, etc.).
The Age of Alamas
1879 (55 years old) finally more than 20 years of observation data compiled "Insect" in the first volume. Because the landlord will Oulan home in front of the two rows of Platanus cut off, anger and move. In the village of Longirini to find the ideal home, named "Almaas" (the meaning of the wasteland), Almas's courtyard there are many drought-resistant, prickly plants, is a variety of insects paradise. On April 3, the first edition of "Insects" was published by De La Clap's Press. Later, every three years to publish a book.
1880 (56 years old) Faber with a small sum of money saved in the vicinity of the town to buy an old house is located in the wasteland. He took the local Provence language to take a funny number - "desolate garden." At that time science books were very popular and some were designated as textbooks. In the arctic garden of the leaves of the leaves, found a large number of flowers latent turtle larvae, so began to study the observation of their lives, the retired soldiers Fabina served as his assistant.
1881 (57 years old) was designated as a member of the Paris bachelor (local member).
1882 (58 years old) "Insects" book 2 published. The old father moved to live with him.
1885 (61 years old) wife Mary died (64 years old). Three women Aleya female on behalf of the mother, to deal with housework. Began to watercolor painted "mushroom" map.
In 1887 (63 years old) married to Josephine Dautier (23 years old) in the village of Longirini. Become a member of the French Entomological Society and receive the Dirkers Prize for the Society.
1888 (64 years old) Josephine produced four male Boer.
In 1889 (65 years old) by the French academy of the highest honor of the Bu Ge Er Er Meng Award, won 10,000 francs.
1890 (66 years old) five women born.
1891 (67 years old) four women born off Lei Lei children.
In 1892 (68 years old) was awarded honorary member of the Belgian Entomological Society.
In 1893 (69 years old) father Antonioni died (93 years). Began to study the great moths incredible ability to find male moths can be found from the distant place female moth, is issued by the female moth a "message divergence", that is similar to today's so-called "hormones", Faber called moths Gathered at home on May 6 for the "big moth night", had the larvae of the larvae baked to eat, and fired artillery to test cicada hearing.
In 1894 (70 years old) was awarded honorary member of the French Entomological Society. Began to observe the fecal turtles, half a man dung turtle, bird beak weevil and big scorpion habit.
In 1895 (73 years old) female female Anna was born.
In 1897 (75 years old) at the home of Almas to educate three young children, his wife Josephine also lectures.
In 1898 (76 years old) female Andrei died.
In 1899 (77 years old) As the market appeared a lot of imitation, he wrote the science books are no longer designated as textbooks, royalties are reduced, life again in trouble.
In 1902 (80 years old) in order to raise three children, began to remove the royalties and royalties stored in the press, won the honorary member of the Russian Entomological Society.
1905 (82 years old) French school awarded the Guinness Prize, received pension 3000 francs.
1907 (84 years old) "Insects" book 10 issue, but poor sales. Dr. Le Gruel proposed the celebration of the 30th anniversary of the publication of Insects and found that Faber's life was harder than he thought.
In 1908 (85 years old) under the efforts of the Bloopans poet Mistola, Fabre's contribution was affirmed and received a pension of 1500 francs.
In 1909 (86 years old), "Insects" book 11 (on fireflies, cabbage on the caterpillar insects, etc.), the body has been very weak, published poetry. Was awarded the title of Albu "Bloopans".
1910 (87 years old) on April 3, at the call of Mistola, called the students, friends, readers, held a celebration ceremony, as "Fabre Day", "Insect" was famous, again Won the Lei Ziyou Nu Nuoer medal (more than the previous one) and pension two thousand francs. Received a number of donations from home and abroad, in addition to the unknown address of the transfer of poor people, the other all the letter of thanks to return. French literary circles to the "insect sector Virgil" as the title, recommended for the Nobel Prize winner.
1912 (89 years old) wife Josephine died (48 years old), by Aleya and the monastery nurse Anthony Iban care. Minister of Public Affairs Tieri visits.
In 1913 (90 years old) President Boan Carre visited, on behalf of the French national to pay tribute to France.
In 1914 (91 years old) three men love Emil and his brother Francis Lectra have died.
1915 (92 years old) in May, with family support, sitting in a chair around the courtyard a week, the last visit Alma Si. October 7, uremia increased. October 11 died on earth. 16 days, buried in the Longirini cemetery, there are mantis, snails and so on to see off. At the age of 92 years old. (1823-1915)
In 1921, in the rush of the members of the Rugger MP, the government bought Almaas, preserved in the name of the "Almaas Fabre" in the Paris Museum of Natural History, and hired Alia, The
The management of this is Pinnar Tougou.
Faber-born home in the Sa Lei Wang primary school teacher - Lady Kabarda's advocacy, but also to preserve the museum type to date.